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Technical Glossary E - I


EMS - Element Management System. A management system that provides functions at the element management layer.

ESF - A TI framing format that utilized the 193rd bit as a framing bit, but with a superframe made up of 24 frames instead of 12 (as in a D4 format). ESF also provides CRC error detection and maintenance data link functions.

ETC� - Enhanced Throughput Cellular. An analog cellular transmission protocol proprietary to paradyne Corporation.

Ethernet - A type of network that supports high-speed communication among systems. It is a widely-implemented standard for LANs.

ETSI - European Telecommunications Standardization Institute. An organization that produces technical standards in the area of telecommunications.

EU - European Union. Formerly known as EC, European Commission.

Extended Superframe (ESF) - A T1 transmission standard specifying 24 frames as an extended superframe, used for frame synchronization and to locate signaling bits.

Fast Packet Switching - Packet switching that supports both voice and data at T I speeds and above.

FCC - Federal Communications Commission. The FCC Board of Commissioners regulates all electrical communications that originate in the United States.

FDDI - Fiber Distributed Data Interface. A LAN token ring standard using fiber optic cable.

FDI - Feeder Distribution Interfaces. Points where cable bundles from the telephony switch use drop lines extended out to the customer premises.

FDM - Frequency Division Multiplexing.

FEXT - Far End CrossTalk. One category of Crosstalk that occurs at the remote end of a link.

FRAD - Frame Relay Assembler/Dissembler. A FRAD connects non-frame relay devices to the frame relay network.

Foreign Exchange - Traditionally, the connection of a customer to a central office (CO) or exchange other than the CO that the customer is normally connected to. Often used to connect distinct extensions to a PBX. An FXS at the extension end looks like the PBX and an FXO, and the PBX looks like a locally connected extension.

Fractional T1 (FT1) - A service that lets a customer use less than 24 channels on a T1 line without paying for the entire line. Customers can purchase a portion of TI bandwidth in segments of 64 Kbps.

Frame - A group of bits sent over a communications channel.

Frame Relay - A high-speed connection-oriente packet switching WAN protocol using variable-length frames.

FRF - Frame Relay Forum.

Front End Processor (FEP) - A communications computer, associated with a host computer, that manages the lines and routing of data through the network.

FRSP - Frame Relay Service Provider.

FTP - File Transfer Protocol. A TCP/IP standard protocol that allows a user on one host to access and transfer files to and from another host over a network.

Full Duplex - Full-duplex communication means that data flow can be simultaneously transmitted and received across a communications channel.

GUI - Graphical User Interface.

Half Duplex - Half-duplex communication means that data flow can be alternately transmitted and received across a communications channel.

HDB3 - High Density Bipolar Three Zeros Substitution. A line coding technique used to accommodate the ones density requirements of El lines.

HDSL - High-bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line. A technique for high bandwidth, bidirectional transmission over copper wire for TI and El services.

Hertz - Frequency measurement. 1 Hertz = I cycle per second.

HTML - HyperText Markup Language. An authoring software used on the Internet's World Wide Web. HTML is basically ASCII text with HTML commands.

HTU-C - HDSL Terminal Unit - Central. The module at the CO or central site end of an HDSL connection. Also known as a Line Termination Unit (LTU).

HTU-R - HDSL Terminal Unit - Remote. The module at the customer premises end of an HDSL connection. Also known as a Network Termination Unit (NTU).

IDC - Insulation Displacement Connection. A wire connection device.

IDSL - ISDN DSL. Uses 2BlQ line code.

IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

IETF - Internet Engineering Task Force. The primary working body developing TCP/IP standards for the Internet.

ILEC - Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier. Refers to the primary existing central office carrier, as distinguished from new competitive carriers established after deregulation.

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) - Telecommunication service that uses digital transmission and switching technology to provide voice and data communications on a bearer channel while sending signals on a data channel. Major offerings include Basic Rate, Primary Rate, and Broadband ISDN.

Interexchange Carrier (IEC) - A company that provides inter-LATA (local exchange carrier) telecommunications services, like AT&T, MCI, and US SPRINT. Access to these services can be provided through DDS channels, T1.5 dedicated access channels, or digital switched access (DSA) channels.



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