Technical Glossary I - M
International Standards Organization (ISO) - One of the largest and most recognized international standards bodies. ISO membership comprised of individual countries, not companies.
Interoperability - The ability of equipment from multiple vendors to communicate using standardized protocols.
Inverse Multiplexing - Taking a single high-bandwidth stream and dividing it into multiple channels for transmission over a wide area in separate 56 or 64 Kbps switched digital circuits.
IP - Internet Protocol. An open networking protocol used for Internet packet delivery.
IPX - Internetwork Packet Exchange. A LAN communications protocol used to move data between server and workstation programs running on different network nodes.
ISA - Industry Standard Architecture. A standard for connections of personal computer bus architecture.
ISDN - See Integrated Services Digital Network.
ISP - Internet Service Provider. A vendor that provides direct access to the Internet.
ITU - International Telecommunications Union. The telecommunications agency of the United Nations, established to provide standardized communications procedures. Formerly known as CCITT.
IXC - InterXchange Carrier. All long distance carriers; also known as Other Common Carriers.
Kbps - Kilobits per second. One kilobit is usually taken to be 1,024 bits.
L2TP - Layer Two Tunneling Protocol.
LAN - Local Area Network. A privately owned and administered data communications network limited to a small geographical area.
LANE - LAN Emulation. Typically used in LANE over ATM.
LAP-F - Link Access Protocol - Frame Relay. Q-922 Framing.
Last mile - Refers to the local loop and is the difference between a local telephone company office and the customer premises; a distance of about three miles or four kilometers.
Layer - OSI reference model. Each layer performs certain tasks to move the information from the sender to the receiver. Protocols within the layers define the tasks for the networks.
Leased-line - Also known as private or dedicated line. A communications channel contracted for a fixed monthly rate from a common carrier for exclusive use.
LEC - Local Exchange Carrier. A company that provides intra-LATA (local access transport area) telecommunications services.
Limited-Distance Modem (LDM) - Also called a local area data set, or LADS.
Link Problem Determination Aid (LPDA) - A series of testing procedures used in NetView that are initiated by the network control program (NCP) and provide the status of modems and attached devices, as well as the overall quality of the link.
Local Access Transport Area (LATA) - A region served by a local exchange carrier (LEC) that consists of one or more area codes.
Local loop - The distance between the CO and the customer premises.
Loopback Tests - Any tests in which a test signal is injected at one end of a circuit, looped back at the other end, and monitored at the originating end.
MAC - Media-specific Access Control. Protocol for controlling access at the data link Layer 2.
Management Information Base (MIB) - A database of objects with attributes and values representing the manageable components of a network device. Used in SNMP. There are industry-standard M113s as well as proprietary M113s.
Mbps - Megabits per second. One megabit is 1,048,576 bits.
MDF - Main Distribution Frame. The point where all local loops are terminated at a Central Office.
MIB - Management Information Base. A database of managed objects used by SNMP to provide network management information and device control.
microcorn Networking Protocol (MNP) - Detects and corrects data errors caused by telephone line noise and signal distortion. MNP 5 includes data compression.
Modem - A contraction of modulator/demodulator. A device that converts digital data to/from analog signals for transmission over analog lines.
MPEG - Motion Picture Experts Group. Group developing ISO standards for full-motion video.
MSDSL - Multirate SDSL.
MSO - Multiple System Operator. A cable company that operates more than one TV cable system.
MTBF - Mean Time Between Failures.
MTSO - Mobile Telephone Switching Office. A generic name for the main cellular switching center which supports multiple base stations.
Mu-Law - A TI standard algorithm that describes the nonlinear compression performed in the analog-to-digital conversion process of PCM systems used in the USA, Canada, and Japan. See A-law.
Multichannel Multipoint (MCMP) -A circuit card that enables the support of up to six independent applications over a single multipoint digital facility. The MCMP capability can support up to 40 tributary DSUs, each optioned with an MCMP card.
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